Chronology

Da FountainPen.


In this page are reported the most relevant events like brands foundation or termination, introduction of new models or dismission of the old ones, creation of technical innovations, variations carried out on the characteristics of the models, realizations of new materials, etc. The events are listed year by year, trying to cover what that happened in the fountain pen history.

Dates reported here are sometime controversial, when we are aware of this we summarize the uncertainty reporting the alternatives, but you can find the details of the controversies only looking at the detailed pages for brands and models, unfortunately just a few of them have been translated from italian. Moreover information about dismission of models and features are always approximate, because sometime model or feature were ceased from production or from catalogs, but the pens were still sold or produced for still some time. So please do not take dates reported here for granted, often they are just guesses, and they may be wrong for taking a wrong reference, always check in the pages referred inside the single entry to have more info about the sources.

This chronology is almost unmaintained for pens produced after the '60s because they are of almost of no interest both for the history and the author of this page. This page is the English translation of the contents of the Italian page Cronologia, it's still a work in progress, and I have little knowledge of English. If you want to help just let me know, you can use the contact info in the information link that's in the bottom of all the pages.

1761

  • Kaspar Faber starts a pencil production in Stein, is the Faber-Castell origin

1770

  • Nisbet Macniven founded a factory in Balerno, is the Cameron origin

1788

  • P. C. Lambertye starts a watercolors production, is the Paillard origin

1790

  • Hardtmuth is founded by Joseph Hardtmudt in Vienna

1795

  • Conté is founded by Nicolas-Jacques Conté as Société Conté

1813

  • Thomas De La Rue starts its activities in Guernsey, is the Onoto origin

1818

  • William S. Hicks starts[1]his activity, is the Hicks origin

1827

  • Petrache Poenaru get what seems the first patent in fountain pens

1832

  • Carl Hornemann starts[2]a paint production factory, is the Pelikan origin

1835

  • Johann Sebastian Staedtler founded his pencil factory in Nuremberg, is the Staedtler origin

1838

  • printed the first catalog of the Hornemann's Paint and Ink Factory company, considered the official start of Pelikan activities

1840

  • John and Donald Cameron became Macniven partners founding Macniven & Cameron Ltd.

1841

  • George Sheppard started a gold nibs manufacturing company, is the Holland origin

1842

  • Mallat is founded by Jean Benoit Mallat in Parigi

1843

  • Swan is founded by John Mabie, Henry Todd in New York as Mabie, Todd and Co.

1846

  • Richard Cross and E. W. Bradbury begin their activities in the United States, is the Cross origin

1848

  • A. Morton & Co. is founded by Alexander Morton in New York as A. Morton & Co

1850

  • Brause is founded by Carl Brause, Friedrich Brause, Wilhelm Brause, Carl Bergfeld in Iserlohn
  • J. M. Paillard succeed in business founded in 1788 by P. C. Lambertye

1852

  • Jean Benoit Mallat patents a metallic nib pen

1854

  • John Mabie patents (nº US-11762) telescopic mechanism for pen and pencil holder

1856

  • Eagle is founded by Heinrich Berolzheimer in New York as Eagle Pencil Company
  • Esterbrook is founded by Richard Esterbrook in Camden, New Jersey as United States Steel Pen Manufacturing Company

1857

  • Hicks is founded by William S. Hicks in New York as William S. Hicks (& Sons) Gold Pen Company

1858

  • Carter is founded by William Carter in Boston, Massachusetts as William Carter Company
  • Esterbrook is renamed as Esterbrook Steel Pen Manufacturing Company
  • Spencerian is founded by Ivison Phinney in New York as Spencerian Steel Pen Co.

1861

  • Venus is founded by Edward Weissenborn in Hoboken as American Lead Pencil Company

1862

  • John Holland acquire George Sheppard activity, giving birth to John Holland Pen Company

1863

  • Günther Wagner became a partner in the Hornemann's Paint and Ink Factory, future Pelikan

1864

  • Aikin Lambert is founded by James Cornelious Aikin, Henry Lambert in New York
  • Jean Benoit Mallat patents the Siphoïde, a fountain pen ancestor

1865

1869

  • Maruzen is founded by Yuteki Hayashi in Yokohama

1871

  • Günther Wagner buy the Hornemann's Paint and Ink Factory, future Pelikan, when Carl Hornemann retires

1873

  • Degussa is founded in Frankfurth as Deutsche Gold und Silber Scheideanstalt
  • Jonhatan Sprague Bard join Mabie Todd that becomes Mabie Todd & Bard

1875

  • Soennecken is founded by Friederich Soennecken in Bonn as Soennecken Verlag

1876

1877

  • Alonso T. Cross patents a stilographic pen and a new mechanical pencil

1878

  • Johan Faber starts the Johan Faber A. G., part of what will be the Faber-Castell
  • Günther Wagner registers the Pelikan trademark, creating the Günther Wagner Pelikan

1879

  • Holland began fountain pens marketing

1880

  • Alonso T. Cross create his own company A. T. Cross - Pen and Pencil Manufacturer

1881

  • a Cross Pen Company is founded in Boston for fountain pen production, different from A. T. Cross
  • De La Rue produced the Anti-Stylograph pen, a primordial fountain pen

1882

  • first fountain pen patent assigned to Paul E. Wirt

1883

  • Kaweco is founded by Luce, Ensslen in Heidelberg as Heidelberger Federhalterfabrik
  • Waterman is founded by Lewis E. Waterman in New York

1884

  • Holland open a new factory dedicated to fountain pens production
  • Lewis Edson Waterman get his first patent (nº US-293545) for a multi-channel feeder
  • Wirt is founded by Paul E. Wirt in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania

1885

  • Wirt opens a factory in Iron Street, Bloomberg

1886

  • Waterman introduces the first barrel worked mechanically

1888

  • Carter is incorporated as Carter's Ink Company
  • Parker is founded by George S. Parker in Janesville, Wisconsin
  • Waterman is incorporated as L. E. Waterman Company

1889

  • George S. Parker begin to make fountain pens
  • Weidlich is founded by Otto E. Weidlich in Cincinnati as O. E. Weidlich Pen Company

1890

  • Beaumel is founded by David W. Beaumel in New York as D. W. Beaumel & Co.
  • Eagle create a glass cartridge pen
  • Swan Mabie Todd & Bard starts using the Swan trademark[4]
  • Waterman introduces the first desk pen with conical end
  • Wirt proclaims the sale of 350,000 pens

1891

  • George S. Parker begin a partnership with William F. Palmer

1892

  • Diamond is founded in New York as Diamond Point Pen Company
  • Heidelberger Federhalterfabrik, that will become Kaweco, begins fountain pen production[5]
  • Parker is incorporated as The Parker Pen Company
  • Roeder is founded by S. Roeder in Berlino

1894

1895

  • Siebert and Lowen, producer of Matador pens, is founded
  • Wyvern is founded by David Finburgh, Alfred Finburgh, Alec Finburgh in Leicester as The Finburgh Bros

1896

  • Caw's is founded by Francis C. Brown in New York as Caw's Ink and Pen Company
  • Laughlin is founded by James W. Laughlin in Detroit as Laughlin Pen Company
  • Wearever is founded by David Kahn in North Bergen, New Jersey as David Kahn Inc.

1897

  • A. A. Waterman is founded by Arthur A. Waterman, William G. Frazer, Hobart W. Geyer in Boston
  • Soren Christian Frederik Olsen starts a company[6], is the Penol origin

1898

  • Conklin is founded by Roy Conklin in Toledo, Ohio as Self-Filling Fountain Pen Company
  • Alexander Castell renames the A. W. Faber in A. W. Faber-Castell
  • Parker patents the slip-on cap
  • Pelikan introduces the Pelikan 4001 inks line

1899

  • H. Koch and R. Weber acquire the Heidelberger Federhalterfabrik, that becomes Kaweco
  • Moore is founded by Walter F. Cushing, William F. Cushman in Boston as American Fountain Pen Company

1900

  • Fend is founded by Karl Fend, Georg Fend in Pforzheim as Gebrueder Fend G.m.b.H.

1901

  • the Self Fountain Pen Co. is renamed as Conklin Pen Manufacturing Co

1902

  • Crocker is founded by Seth S. Crocker in Boston as Crocker Pen Company

1903

  • Etienne Forbin become agent for some U.S. writing instruments manufacturers, is the Bayard origin
  • Conklin hires Mark Twain as testimonial in its advertisement campaign
  • Eclipse is founded by Marx Finstone in San Francisco as Eclipse Fountain Pen Co.
  • Eugène Moreau establish the Société Anonyme des anciens établissements Paillard
  • Christian Olsen sign an agreement with Parker for their pens distribution

1904

  • Boston Pen is founded by Charles Brandt in Boston as Boston Fountain Pen Company
  • Roy Conklin retires selling his quotes on the company (or 1907)
  • Parker introduces a first filling system based on rubber sac squeezing
  • Schnell is founded by Julius L. Schnell in New York as Julius L. Schnell Pen Company
  • Welty is founded by William W. Welty in Waterloo as Welty Pen Company

1905

  • Bankers is founded in New York as Bankers Pen Company
  • Wahl Adding Machine Co. is founded, is the Eversharp origin
  • Perfection is founded by Jay G. Rider in Rockford as J. G. Rider Pen Company
  • American Lead Pencil Company registers the Venus trademark

1906

  • August Eberstein start producing fountain pens in Germany

1907

  • the Conklin Pen Manufacturing Co was renamed Conklin Pen Company (do not match with patent data)
  • Swan is incorporated as Mabie Todd & Co.

1908

  • Kaweco patents a safety pen with threaded bottom to be turned by screwing the cap (1909?)
  • Montblanc is founded by August Eberstein, Alfred Nehemias, Claus-Johannes Voss in Hamburg as Simplo Filler Pen Co. GmbH

1909

  • SSS is founded by Asashiro Hosonuma as SSS Pen Company
  • Swan starts fountain pen production in England

1910

  • Edacoto is founded by Jacques Bonhomme in Parigi as Edac
  • Montblanc introduces the first model called Montblanc
  • Morrison is founded by Louis Morrison in New York as Morrison Fountain Pen Company

1911

  • first trace of Nettuno activities in an advertizement draft
  • Onoto is incorporated as limited liability company
  • SSS starts fountain pen production
  • Sailor is founded by Kyugoro Sakata in Koze as Sakata Seisakusho Co

1912

  • A. A. Waterman loses the lawsuit filed by Waterman and should mark his fountain pens as Not Connected with the L. E. Waterman Company
  • Etienne Forbin registers Bayard trademark
  • Montegrappa is founded by Edwige Hoffman, Heidrich Helm in Bassano del Grappa as Manifattura Pennini Oro per Stilografiche - The Elmo Pen
  • Monterosa is founded by Fritz Dimmler in Zurich
  • the first fountain pens marked Sheaffer were produced[9]

1913

  • A. A. Waterman was refounded as The Modern Pen Company in West Virginia
  • Onoto introduces some models in red/black mottled hard rubber called Antique (?)
  • la Parker introduces a gold ring at the cap top for women's models
  • Sheaffer is founded by Walter A. Sheaffer in Fort Madison as W. A. Sheaffer Pen Company
  • Soennecken extends the range of fountain pens with many models

1914

  • Walter Boss enters Cross
  • Eversharp is founded by John C. Wahl in Chicago as The Wahl Company
  • Eversharp enter the writing instrument market producing the Eversharp pencil
  • Kaweco acquire A. Morton & Co., taking their know how and starts its nib production in Heidelberg (1913?)
  • Kraker is founded by George M. Kracker in Kansas City as Kraker Pen Company
  • the Simplo Fullfeder GmbH start official use of Montblanc trademark
  • the Simplo Filler Pen Co. GmbH is renamed as Simplo Fullfeder GmbH

1915

  • Walter Boss buys Cross from Alonso Townsend Cross

1916

  • Conklin introduces its spring clip
  • Mallat starts fountain pen production
  • Météore is founded by L. Demilly, V. Degen in Nanterre as Manifacture Parisienne de P.P.R.
  • Nettuno is founded by Umberto Vecchietti in Bologna
  • Parker produces the Trench Pen for the U. S. War Department, given to soldiers to write from the front line
  • Tibaldi is founded by Giuseppe Tibaldi in Firenze as G. Tibaldi e C.

1917

  • John Holland dies, his sons take over the management
  • the American Fountain Pen Company becomes the Moore Pen Company
  • Pagliero is founded by Luigi Pagliero in Settimo Torinese
  • Sheaffer create Morrison Plow Works plants
  • Stilus is founded by Emilio Pecco in Torino as Pecco e C. Stilus
  • Swan introduces models with ink pads for the soldiers at the front (its Trench Pen)

1918

  • Giuseppe Zanini opens an activity named Arti Grafiche - Giuseppe Zanini, is the Ancora origin
  • Columbus is founded by Eugenio Verga, Alfredo Verga in Milano as Alfredo Verga dei Fratelli Verga Snc
  • De Witt-La France is founded by David J. La France, William P. De Witt in Cambridge, Massachusetts as De Witt - La France Co.
  • Geha is founded by Heinrich Hartmann, Conrad Hartmann in Hannover
  • Le Tigre is founded by René Kintz in Bruxelles as Établissements René Kintz
  • Franck LeBoeuf patents a pen production method from celluloid tubes
  • Morison is founded by Torajirou Tanigawa as Kikaku Pen Company
  • Pilot is founded by Ryosuke Namiki, Matsuo Wada in Tokyo as Namiki Manufacturing Company
  • Salz is founded by Jacob Salz, James Salz, Ignatz Salz in New York

1919

  • Aurora is founded by Isaia Levi in Torino as Fabbrica Italiana Penne a Serbatoio Aurora
  • Mentmore is founded in London as Mentmore Manufacturing Company
  • Armando Simoni registers a business for "Lavorazione di articoli di penne in ebanite"
  • Osmia is founded by Hermann Böhler in Dossenheim as Böhler und Cie
  • Platinum is founded by Syunichi Nakata in Tokyo as Nakaya Seisakusho
  • Ripet is founded by Emil Kroutl in České Budějovice
  • Swan moves its headquarters to Oxford Street[10]
  • Unic is founded by M. M. Kothe, Vannier

1920

  • A. A. Waterman was sold changing name in Chicago Safety Pen Company moving to Chicago
  • Giuseppe Zanini founds the Fabbrica e Commercio di Penne Stilografiche e Raffinati Oggetti per Arti Grafiche
  • Autopoint is founded by W. E. Gerry in Chicago as Autopoint Pencil Company
  • Burnham is founded by Harry Burnham in London
  • Seth Sears Crocker left business and his son Seth Chilton Crocker took over the company
  • Kosca is founded by Paul Kohler, Christian Schaefer in Milano
  • Marchi minori is founded by Friedrich Merz, Georg Merz, Justus Krell in Bieberau
  • Parker start producing mechanical pencils

1921

  • Astoria is founded by Georg Ilgner in Amburgo
  • Dunn is founded by Charles Dunn in New York
  • Ercolessi is founded by Edgardo Ercolessi in Milano
  • Giacomazzi is founded by Pietro Giacomazzi, Girolamo Giacomazzi in Settimo Torinese
  • LeBoeuf is founded by Frank Le Boeuf, Edward E. Le Boeuf, Leroy J. Learned, John H. Williams, Eugene E. Le Boeuf in Springfield
  • Nettuno registered the Penna Nettuno Sicurezza trademark for its pens
  • Onoto introduces a normal feeder instead of the initial overfeed (uncertain date)
  • Onoto becomes a public limited company, changing ownership
  • Stylomine is founded by Yves E. Zuber in Parigi

1922

  • Ettore Ripamonti becomes Aurora exclusive agent and published first catalog[12]
  • Aurora introduces the A.R.A. that appears in the catalog, only in size 4
  • Bayard Panici Freres & Co is founded, they will produce the Bayard pens
  • Edacoto starts its fountain pen production
  • Météore introduces first model with its trademark engraved on the cap
  • Armando Simoni registers Officine Meccaniche di Precisione Simoni Armando
  • Sheaffer replaces the imprint "SHEAFFER-CLIP" on clips with "Sheaffer'S"

1923

  • Aurora introduces also the 3, 35 and 5 sizes for the A.R.A model
  • Autopoint Pencil Company is bought by Realite Pencil Company and renamed Autopoint Products Company
  • Pen-Co is founded by Rinaldo Rossi, Marcello Rossi in Sandrigo
  • Pilot introduces the first hard rubber lacquer coated models
  • Scripto is founded by Monie A. Ferst in Atlanta as M. A. Ferst Company

1924

  • Giuseppe Zanini establish his Fabbrica di penne stilografiche e commercio, stampe in genere e riproduzioni opere d'arte
  • Carter starts fountain pen production
  • Dunn get its first bankrupcy filing
  • Onoto introduces a second tier production marked The De La Rue
  • Pelikan introduces the stylized with a pelikan feeding four chicks logo (or 1926[14])
  • Syunichi Nakata tranfer to Tokyo and found Nakaya Seisakusho Pen Co.
  • Sheaffer starts converting the production of its Flattop models to celluloid

1925

  • Ancora carries the production to Sesto Calende
  • Aurora introduces an official clip for its pens
  • Eclipse opens a canadian branch as indipendent company
  • Fratelli Cavaliere is founded by Giuseppe Cavaliere, Aldo Cavaliere, Carlo Cavaliere in Milano
  • Holland convert production to celluloid
  • KWG is founded by Frederik Grube, Heinrich Woringen, J. Knust in Wiesloch
  • Luxor is founded by Heinrich Hebborn in Heidelberg as H. Hebborn & Co.
  • Montegrappa is bought by Alessandro Marzotto and Domenico Manea
  • Montegrappa started the production of Montegrappa branded models
  • Omas is founded by Armando Simoni in Bologna as Officine Meccaniche Armando Simoni
  • Platignum is founded in Londra as Platignum Pen Company
  • Postal is founded in New York as Postal Pen Company Inc.
  • Tropen is founded by Gustav Schroeder in Ludenscheid
  • Wirt is incorporated ad Paul Wirt Pen Co.
  • Wirt is sold by its founder, it will continue production for a few years

1926

  • Aurora introduces a R.A.2 version produced for the Touring Club Italiano
  • Chilton moves to Long Island and introduces first celluloid models
  • Haro is founded by Hans Roggenbuck in Frömsdorf
  • JiF is founded by Jules Fagard
  • Montegrappa is renamed as Manifattura Pennini Oro e Penne Stilografiche Elmo
  • Parker converts all production to celluloid, starting from Duofold
  • Pilot open representative offices in Singapore, New York and London
  • Spors is founded by Frank Spors in Lesueuer Center, Minnesota
  • The King is founded by Lattes in Torino as Società Anonima Pennini King
  • Società Anonima Pennini King (The King), that will become SAFIS, is founded in Turin

1927

  • Carter converts its production to celluloid
  • the Alfredo Verga dei Fratelli Verga is closed, Eugenio Verga continue Columbus production alone
  • Dunn ceases operations
  • Eversharp introduces celluloid models in the Jade Green, Lapis Blue and Coral Red colours
  • Moore introduces its first celluloid models
  • Nettuno introduces its flat top model (guess date, referring to second half of '20s)
  • Onoto productions is transferred to Strathendry in the Fifeshire, Scotland
  • Pilot starts producing mechanical pencils
  • Presbitero is founded by Pietro Presbitero in Milano
  • Sager is founded by Salomon M. Sager in Chicago, Illinois
  • Swan introduces fist models in celluloid

1928

  • Onoto introduces celluloid models (or 1926?)
  • Parker introduces two rings on Duofold cap (three for the the De Luxe)
  • Nakaya Seisakusho Pen Co. is renamed as Platinum Fountain Pen Co.
  • Philipp Mutschler leaves Kaweco and founds Certo, future Reform
  • Rotring is founded by Wilhelm Riepe in Amburgo as Tintenkuli Handels GmbH
  • Wyvern starts using own branded nibs

1929

  • first known trademark registration (Reg. Gen. N. 40112) for Ancora
  • Aurora underwent restructuring and starts the Olo and Asco sub-brands
  • Bayard introduces its first celluloid models
  • Gold Starry retires previous models and convert all production to celluloid
  • Helios is founded by Eugenio Giarola in Milano
  • original Kaweco bankrupt, KWG acquire the trademark and the Kaweco Badische Füllhalterfabrik is born
  • LUS is founded by Umberto Legnani in Saronno as L.U.S. di Umberto Legnani
  • Rupp is founded by Peter Rupp in Heidelberg
  • Tripen is founded by George Coby in Providence as Tripen Manufacturing Company
  • Waterman introduces the Patrician model in Onyx, Turquoise, Jet, Emerald and Nacre colors
  • Alfred Finburgh leaves Wyvern, Alec and David remained
  • Zenith is founded by Giuseppe Morandino in Milano

1930

  • Ancora introduces celluloid models (guess date)
  • Aurora introduces the luxury version of the Duplex with three rings, decorative ring on top of the cap and clip inlaid (date uncertain)
  • Cross introduces an enamelled bands fountain pen pairing with pencils
  • Eversharp introduces the Brasilian Green celluloid
  • Lamy is founded by Joseph C. Lamy in Heidelberg as Orthos Fullhalterfabrik C. J. Lamy
  • Mastilo is founded by Ubaldo Massari in Torino
  • Morans is founded by Anselmo Mora in Firenze
  • Parker retires from Osmia and the Osmia GmbH is founded
  • Scriba is founded by A. Dalla Porta in Verona
  • Titania is founded by Giorgio Fornello in Settimo Torinese
  • Zemax is founded by Massimiliano Zeme in Sesto Calende

1931

  • Atlantica is founded by Giacomo Capella in Milano
  • Aurora introduces the Olo Lusso (guess date, stands for the beginning of '30s)
  • A. W. Faber-Castell and Johan Faber A. G. start to join
  • Pelikan introduces on the Pelikan 100 the celluloid barrel and the hard rubber section (starting june)
  • after Benelli was leaving the brand simply becomes Tibaldi
  • Tibaldi replace the ball clip with a drop clip (guess date, refers to beginning of the '30s)

1932

  • Carter retires from fountain pen market
  • Ceriani is founded by Davide Ceriani in Sesto Calende as Primaria Fabbrica Penne Stilografiche
  • Uhu is founded by August Fischer in Baden as UHU Werk H.u.M.
  • Zerollo is founded by Dante Davide Zerollo in Genova
  • Zerollo/en is founded by Dante Davide Zerollo in Genova

1933

  • the Canadian and the U.S. Eclipse are re-united under a single property
  • Eversharp produce some Bantam with the Century of Progress Exhibition mark
  • Gold Starry introduces small pen in preciuos metal from Viala Lilliput
  • Kikaku Pen Company is renamed as Morison
  • Pelikan introduces the single vent hole on the cap and a curved section on the 100
  • Swan introduces more streamlined models (or 1934)
  • Waterman introduces the 32 (?) models in celluloid

1934

  • Panici Freres & Co is renamed Stylo Bayard and the trademark "Bayard" is engraved on clips
  • in Italy (R.D. 305 of 1934-02-05) all gold nib must be marked according to law with the thousandths inside a lozenge
  • LUS starts fountain pen production
  • Mengoni is founded by Virginio Mengoni in Milano
  • the Simplo Fullfeder GmbH is renamed as Montblanc-Simplo GmbH
  • Pelikan introduces the Auch Pelikan pencil
  • SAFIS is founded in Torino
  • Società Anonima Pennini King (The King) becomes Società Anonima Fabbrica Italiana Stilografiche (SAFIS) (guess date[22])

1935

  • Aurora introduces the Olo F (guess date, stands for the mid '30s)
  • Böhler is founded by Hermann Böhler in Heidelberg
  • Camel is founded by Joseph Wustman in Orange, New Jersey
  • Columbus introduces the arrow clip (date approximate)
  • Summit introduces bigger nibs on top fountain pens
  • Pelikan imprint the nib size on the feeder
  • Pelikan introduces the colors brown and tortoise on the 100, the last one was retired soon after
  • Pelikan introduces the colors red, blue, green, tortoise and lizard skin on the 101
  • Pelikan introduces the 101 version with short cap head
  • death of Giuseppe Tibaldi, direction passes to his nephew, Giorgio Schiassi

1936

  • Cervinia is founded by Giuseppe Carboni in Torino as Fabbrica Italiana Penne Stilografiche Cervinia
  • Columbus moved into the new headquarters of Via Lamarmora in Milan
  • Pelikan introduces brown/tortoise color for the la 101
  • Pelikan imprint the nib size on the plunger back
  • Reform is founded in Nieder-Ramstadt as Reform Füllfederhalter-fabrik Gmbh
  • Saratoga is founded by Edoardo Russo Webber in Milano
  • Swan moves its headquarters to Sunderland House[28]

1937

  • Ancora introduces the Maxima (guess date, coincident with the trademark registration, Reg. Gen. N. 56843)
  • Ancora introduces the Da-Ma (guess date, coincident with the trademark registration, Reg. Gen. N. 56845)
  • Aurora the colored Etiopia (date uncertain, but after the introduction)
  • Edacoto introduces stepped shaped clips with arrow point (or 1935?)
  • Pagliero change name in Luigi Pagliero e F.
  • Pelikan retires the gray, blue, red and brown colors for the 100
  • Pelikan change the feeder passing from the short middle strip to the three long strips[29]
  • Pelikan retires the red, brown/tortoise and tortoise colors for the 101
  • Staedtler change name in Mars Pencil and Fountain Pen Factory

1938

  • Chilton transfer activities to Summit, in New Jersey
  • all Conklin assets are sold to a Chicago investor group
  • japanese brands are forced to use steel nibs, called shiro nib
  • Luxor transfers the production facilities in Cologne
  • Pelikan introduces the 100N luxury versions 100N Gold, 101N Weisgold, 100N Toledo, 101N Gold
  • Pelikan starts general use of palladium nibs (marked "Pd")
  • Pelikan starts using the logo with two chicks (?)
  • the Pilot logo take the "P" letter instead of "N"
  • Pilot is renamed as Pilot Pen Co., Ltd.
  • Tibaldi introduces the Impero (guess date, refers to the end of the '30s)
  • Waterman introduces the with the JiF French subsidiary the "Blue des Mers du Sud" light blue ink.

1939

  • Aurora introduces the Selene (following Luca De Ponti, Letizia Jacopini talks about 1940)
  • Aurora introduces the Optima second version, with triangular clip
  • Colorado is founded by Orlando Quadretti in Bologna
  • Conklin production is transferred to Chicago
  • Lamy acquire Artus Fullaltergesellschaft Kaufmann und Co (guess date)
  • Montegrappa introduces the cap engraving of the MG initials within a circle (guess date, stands for the end of '30s)
  • Pagliero registers the mark LPF in a diamond (Reg. Gen. N. 58632)
  • Pelikan replace on all models gold and palladium nibs with chromiun-nichel nibs (marked "CN") for war restrictions
  • Perop is founded by Vladimír Kaiser, Emil Kroutl, Adolf Krygar, František Zeman in Prague
  • Roccati is founded by Luigi Benedetto, Dino Gilardi in Settimo Torinese
  • Stiassi e Tantini become S.I.S.A. (Società Italiana Stilografiche e Affini) and starts usinig Tabo trademark
  • Zemax is officially registered as Zeme Massimo e C. Soc. Anonima

1940

  • Aurora introduces third Optima version, with tapered clip, three rings and metal decorations on the ends
  • Bayard restyles the Luxe with more streamlined shapes
  • the Wahl Company Co. and Eversharp Inc. are fused into Eversharp Inc.
  • Parker introduces in South America and the Caribbean
  • S.I.S.A. (owner of Tabo trademark) become F.I.S.A. (Fabbrica Italiana Stilografiche e Affini) (approximate date[33])

1941

  • Itala Cromograf is founded by Filippo Giriodi, Livio Campanelli in Genova as Società anonima vendita penne bicolore Itala Cromograf
  • Reform Füllfederhalter-fabrik Gmbh becomes the Reform Füllfederhalter-fabrik Heinz & Jung
  • Swan ends production in New York

1942

  • Columbus factory is destroyed by bombing, production is moved to Lesa
  • Estense is founded by Maria Pozzetti in Modena as Marca Estense
  • Inoxcrom is founded by Manuel Vaqué Ferrandis in Barcellona as Industrial MAVA
  • Pelikan produce war version for Pelikan 100 without metal rings for the internal marked (June)
  • Pelikan replace the piston cork seal with black plastic (October)
  • Stylomine introduces the Stylomine 302 mechanical pencil
  • Stylomine introduces a wheat ear engraved decoration of the clip

1943

  • Eterpen is founded by Lazlo Biro in Buenos Aires
  • Pelikan totally stops production for internal market
  • Stylomine introduces a grape engraved decoration of the clip

1944

  • Pelikan totally stops production in Germany

1945

  • Aurora plants are destroyed by a bombing
  • Eversharp introduces the CA ballpoint pens starts appearing in the USA market
  • Reynolds is founded by Milton Reynolds in Chicago as Reynolds International Pen Company

1946

  • Columbus restarts production in Milan factory
  • Hans Roggenbuck is expelled from East Germany, Haro stops the activity
  • Osmia restarts production

1947

  • Columbus introduces the economic models 52, 53 and 54 (guess date, stands for postwar)
  • Montegrappa was re-established as "Elmo - Montegrappa s.n.c."
  • Parker introduces the new 51 arrow clip
  • Stylomine introduces the Stylomine 404 mechanical pencil

1948

  • Hans Roggenbuck re-founded Haro in Regensburg
  • LUS starts ballpens production
  • Omas restyles the 55x with new versions: ogival (55x/S) and faceted (55x/F)
  • Pilot creates the Nagoya ink factory and the Hiratsuka pens factory
  • Pilot entered the market of stationery products
  • Platinum introduces ballpoint with water based ink, forerunner of the roller pens
  • Sailor began producing a line of celluloid pens
  • Stylomine introduces the Stylomine 707 ballpoint

1949

  • Ancora introduces the Calamus (guess date, stands for the end of '40s)
  • Pelikan introduces a new 100N version with a single nib band and lined clip[36]
  • Pelikan restart production of gold nibs

1950

  • Geha starts fountain pen production
  • Pelikan introduces gold nibs on Ibis also for internal market
  • Pelikan introduces and retires sriped green and tortoise colors like the ones of 400

1951

  • Montegrappa was re-established as "Fabbrica Penne Stilografiche Elmo Montegrappa s.r.l."
  • Omas introduces the Minerva 60 (guess date, stands for the beginning of '50s)

1952

  • Platinum is the first Japanese producer creating injection molding plastic pens

1953

  • la Parker retires stops imprinting date code on the Parker 51 produced outside the USA
  • Pelikan makes the 100N nib group removable with the aid of a special key
  • Pelikan introduces the new transparent plastic piston seal for the 100N

1954

  • Cross enters ballpoint market
  • japanese nibs have the JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) mark imprinted
  • Omas start producing the 361 in plastic
  • Waterman USA ceases production, but Jif-Waterman is still active

1955

  • Columbus production is totally converted to plastic models (guess date, stands for the the mid-50s)

1956

  • Montblanc move the Montblanc engraving on cap
  • the IBIS 130 E Elektrographik appears in a swiss catalog
  • Sailor ends the production of its line of celluloid pens
  • American Lead Pencil Company becomes the Venus Pen and Pencil Corp.

1957

  • Conway Stewart introduces ballpoint and turns production to molded plastic
  • Pelikan introduces white trimmings on the 140 with CN nibs

1958

  • Montblanc produces 34x in green, red and gray, and with clear window
  • Montblanc produces 25x in green, red and gray, and with clear window
  • Onoto ceases operations in England, activities are selled to Australian reseller

1959

  • Waterman american plants are sold to BIC

1960

  • Paillard ceases fountain pen production (?)

1961

  • Pilot starts producing ballpoints

1962

1963

  • Onoto ceases operations also in Australia
  • Reform is bought by Philipp Mutschler sons

1964

1965

  • Pagliero stops using Stilus trademark (guess date, referring to half of '60s)
  • Parker use a section with plastic threads on the 75
  • Rotring use the red ring (Rotring) as official trademark

1966

1967

  • Soennecken the company fails and ceases production

1968

  • Parker remove the 0 central mark on the 75 ring
  • Pilot introduces the telescopic model ?

1970

  • Brause stops fountain pen production
  • Pelikan introduces the gold nibs on the M30 model

1971

  • Fend ceases operations
  • Jif-Waterman acquire the Waterman trademark and become Waterman S.A.

1972

  • Parker introduces dished ends on the 75

1973

1975

1981

  • Kaweco fails and ceases production

Note

  1. it's the earlier date reported in this page.
  2. the most part of the Pelikan chronology take as reference the book Pelikan Schreibgeräte 1929-2004, by Jürghen Dittmer and Martin Lehmann, we used their indications also when other articles (also those referenced in this site) are reporting discordant dates.
  3. as claimed in this advertisement.
  4. indicative date according to David Nishimura, see here.
  5. the most part of the Kaweco chronology is obtained form the information that were published by the company itself ([1], no more on-line) and from the new company history published here.
  6. the most part of the Penol chronology take as reference this website.
  7. referring to a flyer of this year that shows Riccardo Amisani as general representative for Italy and colonies.
  8. according to what is said in this page.
  9. the most part of the Sheaffer chronology take as reference the article: A HISTORY OF SHEAFFER PEN AND WALTER A. SHEAFFER ITS FOUNDER, published by the company itself; until noted otherwise this should be considered the source of the info.
  10. as reported in this page.
  11. as for most of the italian manufacturers many dates are just guessed, referring more to a period than to a specific year, like the first or second half of a decade, or its mid the beginning or end; for more detail just look at chronology on the Montegrappa page.
  12. Aurora chronology, where not otherwise reported, refers to the book La storia della Aurora dal 1919 ai giorni nostri by Luca de Ponti.
  13. as the archive of the company was destroyed in 1942 after the bombing of their headquarters, many Columbus date are just guessed, referring more to a period than to a specific year, like the first or second half of a decade, or its mid the beginning or end; for more detail just look at chronology on the Columbus page.
  14. a Pelikan brochure refers to 1926 while Werner Rüttinger talks about 1924, but the brochure refers to 1957 for the two chicks logo, so probably (see also this thread) the brochure refers to a generic year of use and not to the introduction, therefore we choose to use the Werner Rüttinger year.
  15. all dates referring to features or models introduction for the Ancora pens are guessed and marked as such, because there are no catalogs or listings with clear data; so the cited year is always an approximation, referring to a wider time period (with two year less or more than the used value).
  16. Luca de Ponti reports the 1927 end, Letizia Jacopini reports around 1929, a flyer for the "Esposizione di Torino" in 1928 with celluloid models leads to take as correct the first date.
  17. All-American models are shown in the 1930-31 Conklin catalog.
  18. from trademark registration.
  19. following De Ponti and Iacopini, Lastruccio and Lambrou (unreliable) tell 1930.
  20. although on this page is indicated 1934 this advertising of 1933 clearly shows a clip marked "Edacoto".
  21. the exact year is not known, it's only known that it is later than the faceted version.
  22. refers to application for the Radius trademark, done with this name.
  23. L. Jacopini in La storia della stilografica in Italia talks about 1938, but G. Fichera notes that the advertizements talks about the Regno d'Italia, so they must be before 1936.
  24. referring to the catalog showed in this discussion.
  25. referring to the introduction of faceted models, probably the first to use this name
  26. as reported by Richard Binder on this page who also reports a subsequent production, demonstrated by the presence of a model with a 1938 dating code.
  27. using the date indicated by Luca De Ponti, Letizia Jacopini speaks of the mid '30s.
  28. as reported in this page.
  29. according to Martin Lehemann, see this page.
  30. date is taken from an article published on "Illustrazione Italiana", in an insert dedicated to autarkic productions, published as supplement to N. 17 of 1938, which reported the news that the production in the new plant in Arona would be starting in days.
  31. given based on the trademark registration date (Reg. Gen. N. 60764).
  32. indicated by Letizia Jacopini.
  33. supposed few time after S.I.S.A. foundation
  34. lower limit, as shown by this AD.
  35. on the historical section of the company's website is quoted this date, but others (such as Letizia Jacopini in La Storia della Stilografica in Italia 1900-1950) report 1948.
  36. according to Dittmer and Lehemann.
  37. taking as reference questa pagina.
  38. we use the one indicated as official by Richard Binder in this article.