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==History==
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The [[Conklin|Conklin Pen Manufacturing Co.]] was officially born with this name in Toledo, Ohio, in 1901, but the company was founded by ''Roy Conklin'' as ''Self Fountain Pen Co.'' in 1898 together with C. B. Gundy. The previous year ''Roy Conklin'' had registered the patent for the first working automatic filling system created for a pen.
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[[Image:1905-Conklin-Crescent.jpg|thumb|An AD's of 1905.]]
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The company strong initial success was due to the creation of the [[Crescent Filler]], which was the first automatic filling mechanism truly reliable. These [[Conklin Crescent Filler|firsts models]] were made in [[BCHR|chased hard rubber]] like other pens of the same period, but their innovative filling system led the company at the top of the market. In 1904, ''Roy Conklin'' withdrew from company selling all its shares, after that the ownership passed hands several times. In this golden period [[Conklin]] followed a policy of trade expansion, with vigorous promotional campaigns, exporting even in Europe and South America.
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In 1916 [[Conklin]] introduced an innovative spring clip, that can be open very easily; for its simplicity and elegance the same mechanism has been used today by modern companies like Visconti. The sales of fountain pens, although declining, remained at the top of the market, also if [[Conklin]] models become to be considered a little dated.
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In fact, although functional and efficient, the [[Crescent Filler]] had its worst flaw in being unpleasant from an aesthetic point of view, and despite a strong promotional campaign that emphasized its merits (Mark Twain, taken as testimonial, endorsed the advantage of it not allowing the pen to roll down from the table) with the appearance of [[lever filler]] pens the sales began to decline increasingly, despite that the new mechanism was inferior from a purely technical point of view.
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This is why in 1921 also [[Conklin]] started producing models with a peculiar [[lever filler]] mechanism, ingeniously constructed so that only half of the lever was in the open. With the introduction of the large dimension pens trend started by the [[Duofold]] also [[Conklin]] introduced in 1923 the [[Duragraph]] model. The following year the [[Duragraph]] was renamed as [[Endura]] and the production was converted to celluloid. Initial model were in black or red hard rubber, but soon they were produced in celluloid, with different colors like ''Rosewood'', ''Black & Gold'', ''Lime Green'', ''Lapis blue'' and the rare ''Blue & Gold'' present only on smaller models.
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[[Image:Conklin-Endura-Colors-Set.jpg|thumb|A set of [[Endura]]]]
Today, as it happened for many other historical brands, [[Conklin]] was rebuild in 2000 and operates now as ''Conklin Pen Co. Inc.'' Its pens are essentially some replica of the successful models of the brand golden years, but as it happens for most of the modern pens, they have no particular qualities that can distinguish them from other pens, especially when compared with their beautiful ancestor.
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== External references ==
* http://www.conklinpen.com/
* http://www.penhero.com/PenGallery/Conklin/Conklin.htm
* http://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=120053
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[[Category:Translated Pages]]
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